Podium Presentation in Room 2 on Thursday at 9:20 (Chair: Amy Caudy)
Authors: Jeffrey Patterson, William Bresette, Sarah Atlas, Jingping Liu, Ryan Eghlimi, Sonia Vega-Lopez, and Haiwei Gu
INTRODUCTION: Obesity has increased in prevalence among Latinos in the United States over the last several decades and continues to trend upward. The current obesity rate for this population is 34.4%, which is significantly higher than that of the general American population (28.7%). However, increased body fat and excessive weight are not necessarily associated with an increase in premature mortality.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, we used a metabolomic analysis to look at the mechanisms behind the Hispanic Paradox. To do this, we examined the role dietary intake, body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), and generational level (GL) played on serum metabolomic fingerprints in 70 Mexican Americans (26 male, 44 female). Metabolomic phenotypes of plasma were measured using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).
RESULTS: There was no significant metabolic separation among BMI groups (normal weight = BMI < 25; overweight = 25 < BMI < 30; obese = BMI > 30), suggesting that the metabolome remains unchanged despite an increase in BMI. When stratified for caloric intake (< 2200 kcal/d vs > 2200 kcal/d), a log-transformed OPLS-DA model showed clear separation in men, while females remained relatively unchanged. Only one metabolite, pipecolinic acid (P = .009; fold change = 3.43), was significantly greater among obese women relative to their non-obese counterparts, whereas no metabolites were significantly different among men with different BMI status. A log-transformed PLS-DA model found similar results between GLs 1, 2, and 3-5 Mexican Americans, potentially signifying the resistance to alteration of the female metabolome. A significant metabolite between the female generation levels was N-acetylethanolamine, an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and satiety producing compound. Additionally, a pathway analysis of significant metabolites between men and women revealed significant alterations in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and aromatic amino acid (AAA) profiles and mechanisms, both prevalent in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
CONCLUSION: While Mexican American males demonstrated variance in metabolic profiles when examined for caloric intake and generational level, the metabolome of female participants showed resilience and largely remained unaffected. Further research is needed to better understand how significant pathways associated with comorbidities may not affect the relatively consistent metabolome of Mexican Americans.
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